Tallinn University of Technology

Silvia Lips, the PhD student of the Department of Software Science, will defend her PhD thesis "A Multifaceted Assessment Framework for Electronic Identity Schemes" on September 4, 2023, starting at 15:00. The defense will take place in room ICT-638 (Akadeemia tee 15a, ICT building of TalTech) and can be also followed via Zoom.

In order for society to function effectively, reliable personal identification of people at any point in time is essential, and the physical and electronic identity of the person needs to be uniquely linked. In Estonia, the uniqueness of identity is ensured through the personal identification code, and there are different ways to prove identity in both the physical and digital worlds. More and more members of society want to use the services offered by other European countries, which requires a cross-border user-friendly, and interoperable personal identification solution. In order to use the electronic identity (eID) tools of different countries across the borders in the EEA, each country must notify its eID scheme for cross-border use according to the European Union regulation on trust services required for e-identification and e-transactions in the internal market (eIDAS). The eID scheme can be notified at ’low’, ’substantial’, and ’high’ levels.

Unfortunately, the current eID scheme notification procedure at the EU level is excessively complex in practice, and therefore the cross-border usability of eIDs is relatively modest. In addition, member states use solutions with different levels of security, and it is difficult to compare solutions with the same level. All this adds additional complexity to the eID schemes notification process, makes it difficult for the interoperable use of eID schemes, and limits the provision of e-services in the EU.

The general framework for the eID schemes assessment proposed as a result of the Ph.D. thesis “A Multifaceted Assessment Framework for Electronic Identity Schemes” remarkably simplifies the eID schemes assessment process that enables the cross-border use of national eID schemes in Europe. Simply said, this means individuals can use the e-services of other European countries with the eID tools already issued by some EU member states.

On the other hand, it is possible to ensure access to e-services offered by a specific member state (for example, Estonia) with the eID means of European countries that have undergone the corresponding notification procedure. Considering the limited size of the Estonian domestic market, an effectively functioning interoperable framework of eIDs creates good prerequisites for developing new digital services and the general development of the Estonian economy.

However, the doctoral thesis focuses on more than just European countries. It deals with the recognition of eID schemes more broadly, proposing a general model for cross-national recognition of eID schemes. The aim is to enable the cross-border use of eID means of the same level between any two countries. This research results propose a framework that enables recognizing of the eID schemes of countries outside the European Economic Area and further revitalizing the economic environment.

The thesis is published in the Digital Collection of TalTech Library.


  • prof Dirk Draheim (TalTech);
  • co-supervisor: prof Ingrid Pappel (TalTech);
  • co-supervisor: prof Robert Krimmer (University of Tartu).


  • prof Marijn Janssen (Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands);
  • prof Gabriele Kotsis (Johannes Kepler University Linz, Linz, Austria).

Follow public defence in Zoom

Meeting ID: 968 1981 0974
Passcode: 378531