Tallinn University of Technology

Electrical and magnetic fields (EMF) measurements, analyzes and modeling

Today, there are few devices that do not use electricity for their work. Electromagnetic fields (EMC) surround every electrical device, wire or even a cloud of thunder. Electromagnetic fields can affect other technical objects as well as wildlife (people, animals, plants, etc.). In order for different devices and components not to interfere with each other with strong electromagnetic fields, they need to be designed to take into account different aspects of electromagnetic compatibility (shielding, twisted pair cables, arrangement of devices and components, etc.). In most cases, it is a good idea to perform electromagnetic field calculations on the devices before creating the final design of the device, which will help to avoid problems that arise later. Electromagnetic field calculations are also needed for the design and interaction / operation of all kinds of generators, motors, transformers, power lines, permanent magnet materials, etc. equipment.

Our competence includes low-frequency electromagnetic fields with a frequency of change of less than 1 MHz, but we can measure and evaluate them at 1 Hz… 3 GHz.

TalTech's Institute of Electrical Power Engineering and Mechatronics offers electric, magnetic and electromagnetic field calculations and equipment modeling. We use two- and three-dimensional calculation software packages Femm, Maxwell, Infolytica and Comsol Multiphysics.

We perform:

  • measurement and analysis of electromagnetic fields, including measurement of EMF in the working environment;
  • spatial modeling of electromagnetic fields, which proceeds from different sources (e.g. high current and high voltage installations);
  • perception and sensory of various objects using electromagnetic fields.

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) measurements and analyzes

Assessment of interactions between electromagnetic fields (EMF) of equipment, systems and installations. Electromagnetic compatibility means that devices are capable of operating in such a way that they do not interfere with the operation of other devices and that their operation is not affected by the external EMF. EMC covers both conductive (corded) and radiant (environmentally friendly) electromagnetic influences.

We perform:

  • conformity measurements of electromagnetic compatibility to product developers whose products must meet different IEC standards;
  • electromagnetic compatibility analysis and expert analysis of various problem situations where EMC is considered to be a problem.

Power quality studies and analyzes

Sudden voltage drops cause disturbances in the power quality of electrical supply. Power quality involves various processes in the power network that lead to deterioration of the service, including voltage levels, voltage distortion, flickering, voltage dips, etc.

We offer:

  • power quality monitoring (voltage levels, voltage distortions, flickers, asymmetry, etc.) in low voltage networks;
  • power quality analysis of new installations and the impact analysis of prospective consumer production equipment /systems on existing installations;
  • loss of electricity supply quality and analysis of electricity consumption;
  • loss analysis due to poor power quality;
  • energy consumption analysis.

Analyzes of operation conditions of electrical devices and components

There are operating criteria and parameters validated for all electrical equipment and components in which limits these devices/components will function properly. Faults often result from the fact that different equipment/components have been overloaded or operating in conditions that exceed these limits.

We offer:

  • operating conditions monitoring of electrical equipment/components, including long-term multi-parameter measurements and logging (voltage, current, temperature, etc.);
  • measurement results analysis, comparative measurements and tests of working conditions in the TUT laboratory;
  • operation improvement options analysis;
  • optimization of equipment / components operation.

Power consumption and losses analyzes

Exact monitoring of electrical consumption allows us to find out the causes of major losses, which can often be reduced significantly by simple techniques.

Consumption and loss analysis includes:

  • monitoring of operating conditions of equipment/components, including long-term multi-parameter measurements and logging (voltage, current, temperature, etc.);
  • reactive and active loads analysis, analysis of the options of reducing reactive power;
  • analysis of voltage levels and distortions of different consumables, analysis and optimization of specific load graphs those consumables.

Thermoelectric generators and their application studies

With thermoelectric elements, it is possible to generate electricity from heat energy without moving parts. The use of such elements for the production of electricity from waste heat or from heat transfer will further increase the systems efficiency. Although thermoelectric generators are relatively expensive per unit of power, there are many advantages.

We provide expertise and development support in the following areas:

  • construction, optimization and converters of  thermoelectric systems;
  • thermoelectric power switches for remote sensors and sensor systems.

Measurements and analysis of leakage currents and stray currents

Protective earthing and equipotential bonding are among the most important techniques for ensuring electrical safety. In addition, the earthing of a single point in electrical equipment, installations and networks is often necessary to reduce the ground voltage of other parts of such equipment and systems (eg phase conductors) and to ensure the intended favorable operating conditions (operational earthing). However, it is often the case that significant leakage currents occur when conducting protection and equipotential bonding of buildings, which in turn can exceed fire safety limits and cause oxidation of water pipes and other metal structures. In addition, the permitted contact voltages and electrical safety must be ensured. Improper earthing and equipotential bonding can cause many problems with equipment interference, and so on.


  • measurements of electromagnetic fields in open air and indoors
  • EMC pre-compliance measurements (for example for CE marking)

Lauri KÜTT