Tallinn University of Technology


U-CAT is a highly maneuverable biomimetic holonomic underwater robot. Its method of locomotion with 4 flexible fins was inspired by underwater turtles' swimming. Its small size makes it suitable for navigating in confined spaces, such as shipwrecks, underwater mining structures etc.
Key features:

  • Bio-inspired locomotion
  • Soft actuators
  • Holonomic control

underwater robotics research

Robominers RM3 prototype


The ROBOMINER RM3 platform is an Archimedean screw propelled robot, developed for testing novel locomotion and sensing methods for a new class of small-scale mining robots. For sensing, the scenarios under investigation with the prototype include impaired vision and under-water conditions.
Key features:

  • Locomotion on multiphase environments
  • “Blind” mapping and localization
  • Tactile feature mapping and SLAM



μ-CAT is a low cost, small sized, Arduino-based, bio-inspired underwater robot. It follows the same locomotion paradigm as U-CAT, employing 4 individually actuated soft fins for navigation. 3 of them are in the lab currently and are used for research as test platforms, for outreach as demonstration/exhibition robots, as well as for education as learning platforms in robotics classes and for various student projects.
Key features:

  • Bio-inspired
  • Soft actuators
  • Learning platform

Underwater Robotics Research

the microCAT robot
HydroMast biorobotics


The hydromast is a bioinspired flow sensor inspired by the biological lateral lines, which are the mechanoreceptive flow sensing organs of fish. It is an upscaled version of the neuromast and consists of a vibrating stem elastically fixed to a pressure sensitive body.
Key features:

  • Multisensory flow measurements
  • Bio-inspired
  • Distributed sensing

More information


Go1 by Unitree is a quadruped robot inspired from a dog, with 12 degrees of freedom (3 per leg), 5 stereo camera sets, 3 ultrasonic sensors, foot force sensors, motor power readings and an IMU. It is used in the lab for research about locomotion on soft grounds.
Key features:

  • Locomotion in multiphase environments
  • Gait planning
  • Remote controllable or autonomous
The Go1 robot walking on snow
DPSS V2 robot


DPSS V2 is a small alternative of the differential pressure sensor speedometer, designed to support higher depths. Its size (D = 5cm; L = 12cm) and design make it possible to adapt it to most common AUV platforms.
Key features:

  • Velocimetry of AUVs
  • 9-axis absolute orientation and depth
  • High depth

Underwater Velocimetry

TurtleBot 4

The TurtleBot 4 Standard mobile robot by Clearpath Robotics is used for teaching navigation, mapping and localization concepts.
Key features:

  • Modular design
  • Learning platform
  • Sensors: camera, lidar




Filose is a fish robot prototype that moves using a soft tail actuated only by one motor. FILOSE robot has feedback from flow sensors and can control itself with respect to the flow (e.g. swim upstream).
Key features:

  • Soft actuator
  • Flow relative control
  • Bio-inspired locomotion

Underwater Robotics Research


The PRESSURE TAG is a small sensor designed to monitor the pressure variations produced by depth changes or water level oscillations and 9-axis absolute orientation.  Some possible applications are: water level monitoring, barotrauma tests, fish tagging, motion studies, etc.
Key features:

  • Pressure and movement monitoring
  • Barotrauma tests
  • Fish tagging
smart geo particle

Smart Geo Particle

The “Smart Geo Particle” (SGP) is a small river drifter developed by the Centre for Biorobotics at Tallinn University of Technology. The SGP is an IoT device that can provide real time estimates of position, travel speed, accelerations, orientations or magnetic fields using a mobile communication at 1 Hz as well as on board recording at 5-10 Hz. These properties make the drifter an ideal tool for the instantaneous characterization of small to large river streams.
Key features:

  • Flow classification
  • River studies
  • Flow velocity, acceleration, mapping

Extreme sensing


iRon is the first lateral line probe based in differential pressure sensors for field use. It consists of a 0.22 m length NACA025 body, designed as a compact, streamlined body to measure pressure gradients over the body simultaneously using six differential pressure sensors (±2000 Pa) with a resolution of 0.0695 Pa. At the same time, the water depth is measured by the probe using an absolute pressure sensor (0 to 10000 Pa). I can measure in a configurable sampling frequency up to 400 Hz.
Key features:

  • Artificial lateral line
  • Sampling up to 400Hz
  • Six differential pressure sensors


Homer is the first artificial lateral line probe, built and tested during the EU BONUS FishView project. It consists of an array of pressure sensors and two in-line linear accelerometers, recording data at up to 2,500 Hz. It has been successfully applied in the lab and in the field to estimate time-averaged flow velocity, turbulence as well as autonomous classification of real-world flows in vertical slot fishways.
Key features:

  • Pressure sensing artificial lateral line and linear accelerometers
  • Useful for both laboratory and field measurements